What are the pathological abnormalities in the normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis?

The pathological substrates of MRI abnormalities in NAWM vary according to the distance from the focal lesions of the MW. Close to WM lesions, axonal pathology and microglial activation may explain subtle changes in MRI. Far from lesions, microglial activation associated with proximity to cortical lesions could underlie MRI abnormalities. This is a preview of the subscription content, which you can access through your institution.

The price does not include VAT (EE). UU) Tax calculation will be finalized during payment. School of Biology and Biochemistry, Centre for Medical Biology, Queen's University of Belfast, Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7BL, Northern Ireland, UK,,,, GB School of Biomedical Sciences, Ulster University, Ulster, Northern Ireland, UK,,,,, GB Provided by the Springer Nature ShareEdit content sharing initiative. The production of maps using DTI that show the main direction of voxel-by-voxel diffusion makes it possible to trace the path of white matter tracts through the brain, known as tractography.

This novel technique holds promise for research into white matter pathology in MS and other disorders. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) allows the in vivo investigation of metabolic alterations associated with brain pathology and provides a quantitative method for investigating abnormalities in normal-appearing white matter. At longer magnetic resonance imaging times, N-acetyl-aspartate (a neuroaxonal marker), creatine and phosphocreatine and choline-containing compounds can be quantified, while at shorter echo times, additional metabolite peaks can be observed in myo-inositol (a potential marker of glial cells), glutamate and glutamine, and mobile lipids. This “projecting” pathology was previously suggested in an MRI study that showed secondary axonal degeneration in the corticospinal tract of multiple sclerosis patients with isolated neurological syndromes.

Sarcoidosis can affect the CNS, causing multiple lesions affecting the cortex, subcortical regions, cranial nerves and, in rare cases, the spinal cord. Two nMTR brain atlases were built in the NAWM, representing the average nMTR in terms of the voxel in the NAWM in people with multiple sclerosis (PWM); SYNERGY, n% 3D 41 and healthy controls (HC); simulated simulations compatible with the SYNERGY scanner, n %3D 1, respectively. To evaluate the change in intensity of nT2 over time, the T2-weighted intensities were also normalized in a two-step process, with (i) the least cropped squares used to normalize the follow-up images to the reference image and (ii) the average normalization to NAWM, so that the average NAWM is mapped to a value of 0 and 1 normalized intensity unit weighted in T2 represents a standard deviation of NAWM intensity. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that is typically characterized by focal lesions in the white matter (WM).

Albert M, Antel J, Brück W, Stadelmann C (200) Extensive cortical remyelination in patients with chronic multiple sclerosis. For white matter, the ultrastructural characteristics of 200 myelinated axons and their mitochondria were analyzed per dataset, including the density and total area of the myelinated axons. The periventricular regions were characterized by the highest level of multiple sclerosis-related NAWM abnormalities (fig. Beneath the tentorium, the cerebellar peduncles and the white matter, the superficial bulge, and the floor of the fourth ventricle are common sites of injury.

Yu F, Fan Q, Tian Q et al. (201) Imaging the g ratio in multiple sclerosis using high-gradient diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and macromolecular tissue volume. Pairing magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology and comparison of 1.5-T and high-field (4.7-T) images. No multiple sclerosis (gray matter), while a value of 1 can be interpreted as corresponding to healthy white matter.

These data indicate that the areas of the brain that show the greatest PWM abnormalities primarily involve the white matter closest to cerebrospinal fluid-filled ventricular spaces (hotter regions in C, F). All imaging parameters were compared cross-sectionally between MS subjects and controls, both in WM lesions and in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). .

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Sarah G

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