Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) when the body's immune system attacks its tissues. It is characterized by demyelination and varying degrees of axonal loss. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a long-term (chronic) central nervous system disease. It's thought to be an autoimmune disorder, a condition in which the body attacks itself by mistake.
Multiple sclerosis is an unpredictable disease that affects people differently. Some people with multiple sclerosis may have only mild symptoms. Others may lose the ability to see clearly, write, speak, or walk when communication between the brain and other parts of the body is interrupted. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with varied clinical presentations and heterogeneous histopathological features.
The underlying immunological abnormalities in MS lead to a variety of neurological and autoimmune manifestations. There is strong evidence that MS is, at least in part, an immune-mediated disease. There is less evidence that MS is a classic autoimmune disease, even though many authors state this in their description of the disease. We show the evidence that supports and refutes the autoimmune hypothesis.
In addition, we present an alternative hypothesis based on virus infection to explain the pathogenesis of MS. This happens when something goes wrong with the immune system and mistakenly attacks a healthy part of the body, in this case, the brain or spinal cord of the nervous system. The cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown. It is considered an immune-mediated disease in which the body's immune system attacks its own tissues.
In the case of multiple sclerosis, this malfunction of the immune system destroys the fatty substance that covers and protects nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord (myelin). Multiple sclerosis is a disease that affects the central nervous system (brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves). It's an autoimmune disease that causes immune cells to mistakenly attack healthy nerve cells. These attacks cause inflammation and damage to the myelin sheath that covers and protects nerve cells.
This damage causes neurological symptoms such as loss of balance, vision problems, and muscle weakness. There are several effective treatments for MS. These medications reduce relapses and help slow the progression of the disease. Most people with multiple sclerosis are able to control their symptoms and lead full, active lives.
Scientists believe that MS is triggered by a combination of one or more environmental factors acting on a genetically susceptible individual. These environmental factors include an unknown foreign substance (an antigen), such as a virus or toxin. In autoimmune diseases, researchers have identified the specific antigen responsible. No specific antigens have been identified in MS.
However, most experts believe that MS is an autoimmune disease, although specific antigens have not been identified. The body's immune system protects it against diseases. If you have an autoimmune neurological disease, your immune system may be too active and mistakenly attack healthy cells. The most common of these is multiple sclerosis (MS).
There are several other inflammatory disorders of the nervous system that require specialized care. At Mount Sinai, we have the knowledge, experience, and resources to diagnose and treat these conditions. Our specialists can help you improve your symptoms and quality of life. Multiple sclerosis is believed to be an autoimmune disease.
A healthy immune system recognizes its own body's cells using the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. When immune cells encounter cells without the HLA indicator, they trigger a cascade of reactions that attack and destroy invading cells. They may be due to a viral or bacterial infection. The fourth criterion is the ability to isolate autoantibodies or autoreactive T cells from the lesion or from serum.
Another important immunopathological feature is the continuous synthesis of immunoglobulins (oligoclonal IgG) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The fifth criterion is the correlation between autoantigen or autoreactive T cells with disease activity. Multiple sclerosis is a disorder in which the body's immune system attacks the protective covering of nerve cells in the brain, optic nerve and spinal cord, called the myelin sheath. However, the long-term consequences of immunosuppression over the course of the disease are unknown because most published clinical trials end after two years of observation, an insufficient period of time to address the long-term consequences of these treatments.
The sixth criterion is the presence of other autoimmune disorders or autoantigens associated with the disease. Demyelination is partly the result of the direct destruction of oligodendrocytes by the virus, but it is also a consequence of immune and inflammatory responses. The underlying immunological abnormalities lead to the presentation of different autoimmune manifestations. The pathophysiology of the disease is complex and involves genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and the development of a pathological immune-mediated response that leads to focal myelin destruction, axonal loss, and focal inflammatory infiltrates.
In MS, due to the strong bias of experimental models of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), it has been mainly thought that the CD8+ T cell plays a suppressive role. A slightly higher risk is seen if a patient already has autoimmune thyroid disease, pernicious anemia, psoriasis, type 1 diabetes, or inflammatory bowel disease. There have also been multiple studies analyzing the presence of autoantibodies, a characteristic of patients with autoimmune diseases, such as the antibodies seen in Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or myasthenia gravis, but to date, there is no evidence to indicate that the presence of these antibodies is greater in MS patients than in normal controls. In multiple sclerosis, the protective layer of nerve fibers (myelin) is damaged and, over time, can be destroyed.
It's not clear exactly what causes the immune system to act this way, but most experts believe that a combination of genetic and environmental factors are involved. Studies using imaging, serology, pathology and genetics, and patient response to anti-inflammatory treatments indicate that multiple sclerosis (MS) is primarily an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with varied clinical presentations and heterogeneous histopathological characteristics. .