The cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown. It is considered an immune-mediated disease in which the body's immune system attacks its own tissues. In the case of multiple sclerosis, this malfunction of the immune system destroys the fatty substance that covers and protects nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord (myelin). In multiple sclerosis, the immune system gets confused and mistakenly attacks the protective layer of myelin that surrounds our nerves.
If the immune system damages myelin, the nerve can't communicate properly and, over time, can die. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological condition, which means it affects the nerves. It contracts when the immune system doesn't work properly. The immune system normally protects it by fighting infections, but in multiple sclerosis it attacks nerves by mistake.
Nerves control many different parts of the body. That's why you can have symptoms of multiple sclerosis in many parts of your body. It's also why everyone's MS is different. This happens when something goes wrong with the immune system and mistakenly attacks a healthy part of the body, in this case, the brain or spinal cord of the nervous system.
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune condition, meaning that the immune system mistakes a part of the body for a foreign substance and attacks it. In the case of multiple sclerosis, it attacks the myelin sheath in the brain and spinal cord. A healthy immune system protects you from harmful substances that enter the body and cause infections or diseases. In multiple sclerosis (MS), the immune system malfunctions and begins to attack the central nervous system (CNS).
The CNS is made up of the brain, spinal cord, and the optic nerves of the eyes. Attacks by the immune system to the CNS can cause a variety of symptoms, including blurred vision, numbness and tingling, muscle weakness, and many more. The immune system is a complex set of organs, proteins, and cells that work together to protect the body from foreign substances. Foreign substances include bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites and cancer cells, all of which can cause infections and diseases if not attacked and destroyed.
A type of white blood cell called a lymphocyte plays an important role in the normal functioning of the immune system. Lymphocytes move through the body through the lymphatic system, which is an extensive network of organs, nodes, and vessels that carry clear, watery fluid called lymph back into the bloodstream. When the immune system malfunctions, lymphocytes and other immune system cells can begin to destroy your own tissue, thinking it's a foreign invader, when it isn't. This phenomenon is known as an autoimmune disease.
Autoimmune disease can affect one or more types of tissue in the body. There are more than 100 known autoimmune diseases and the specific symptoms depend on the tissues being targeted and damaged. Most experts generally consider MS to be an autoimmune disease. That said, because specific antigens (proteins in cells that cause the immune system to malfunction) have not been identified, some experts prefer to call MS an immune-mediated disease.
In multiple sclerosis, the immune system gets confused and sends T cells to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and enter the central nervous system. Your BBB is a layer of widely spaced cells found in the brain's capillaries. Its purpose is to serve as a filter or obstacle, preventing harmful substances from entering the brain. Once in the CNS, T cells release inflammatory chemicals that damage myelin, nerve fibers (axons) and cells that produce myelin (called oligodendrocytes).
They also recruit and stimulate B cells and other types of immune system cells to promote the attack. Myelin is the fatty covering that surrounds and insulates nerve fibers. In addition to protecting nerve fibers, myelin also allows nerve signals to be transmitted quickly and efficiently. When myelin and nerve fibers are damaged and destroyed, scar tissue called sclerosis forms and communication between the central nervous system and the rest of the body is interrupted.
With this disruption of nerve signals, a variety of symptoms can occur. The symptoms of multiple sclerosis vary widely, depending on the nerve signals that are affected. If the symptoms of MS are aggravated or not well controlled, a variety of complications can arise. For example, bladder dysfunction can result in repeated urinary tract infections or stones or kidney damage.
Untreated bladder dysfunction can also contribute to multiple sclerosis, weakness, and spasticity. Early treatment with disease-modifying therapies (DMT) is the best option to prevent permanent immune-related CNS damage and delay disability. Specifically, DMT has been found to reduce the number and severity of MS relapses. A relapse, also called an asthmatic crisis, occurs when a patient has new or worsening symptoms.
Relapses are followed by periods of recovery from symptoms (remission). DMT has also been found to slow the natural progression of the disease, where symptoms gradually worsen and disability accumulates. There are numerous DMTs approved to treat MS, and they are unique in their side effect profiles and the way they are administered (p. e.g.
DMTs also differ in how they work. Some DMTs work by limiting the number of immune system cells that can enter the CNS, while others interfere with the activation or movement of T or B cells. Regardless of their exact form of action, the goal of all DMT is to interrupt the immune system's misguided attack against the CNS. In addition to DMT, other treatments that can alter the immune system and reduce disease activity are being investigated.
For example, the vitamin D dietary supplement appears to play a role in regulating the immune system. In addition, probiotics can alter the gut microbiome and, as a result, calm the immune system. Your doctor can help you determine if one or both of these supplements are right for you. The immune system is the body's main line of defense against infections and diseases.
In multiple sclerosis, the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy brain and spinal cord tissue. This causes symptoms that affect the way you see, feel, move, and think. Taking a disease-modifying medication can interrupt the immune system's abnormal response and, in fact, delay multiple sclerosis. Exactly why a person's immune system gets out of control in MS.
As frustrating and unfair as it is to have multiple sclerosis, you can try to correct your immune system by taking disease-modifying treatment early on and on a consistent basis. The good news is also that there are several medication options available that can meet your needs, schedules, comfort level, and preferences. MS is generally classified as an autoimmune disease. That said, because the specific proteins that cause the immune system to malfunction in MS have not yet been identified, some experts prefer to call MS an immune-mediated disease.
The immune system of people with multiple sclerosis is not weakened or compromised. However, medications for multiple sclerosis, such as steroids and some disease-modifying therapies, can weaken the immune system and make it more vulnerable to infections. Yes, because of the interaction of multiple factors, people with multiple sclerosis have a higher risk of infection compared to the general population. By Colleen Doherty, MD Colleen Doherty, MD, is a board-certified internist living with multiple sclerosis.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease in which many different immune cells are involved in its pathogenesis and, in particular, T cells as the most recognized cell type. Recently, the innate immune system has also been investigated for its effect on the disease. Therefore, cells of the immune system play a vital role in improving or exacerbating the disease. Genetic and environmental factors, as well as etiology and pathogenesis, are of paramount importance for the development of MS.
An overview of the roles played by T cells, B cells, natural killer cells and dendritic cells in MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in an animal model will be presented. Understanding the mechanisms of action of current therapeutic modalities should help develop new therapeutic tools to treat this disease and other autoimmune diseases. Once diagnosed, multiple sclerosis stays with you for life, but treatments and specialists can help you manage the condition and its symptoms. Treatments that target the immune system can reduce the frequency and severity of relapses and the symptoms caused by relapses.
However, in the case of psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, or ankylosing spondylitis, immunity against these autoantigens is not a feature, even though the immune system is involved. Understanding multiple sclerosis, its symptoms, and how it may progress helps people evaluate themselves for this condition. However, in the case of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune conditions, these defenses are activated in the body. Between 1 and 2 out of 10 people with this condition begin their multiple sclerosis with a gradual worsening of symptoms.
Experts consider conditions, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, type 1 diabetes and celiac disease, to be examples of autoimmune diseases that are associated with the production of autoantibodies and autoreactive T cells. It aims to stop the damage caused by multiple sclerosis by annihilating and then regrowing the immune system, using the blood stem cells themselves. According to the Multiple Sclerosis Trust, interferon-beta drugs can reduce the number of MS exacerbations and slow the progression of the disease. With all the studies in recent years looking at the role of the microbiome in immunity, MS research has delved into the minutiae of gut bacteria.
Multiple sclerosis and systemic sclerosis are two autoimmune conditions that affect different parts of the body. However, while the initial studies in this regard showed significant clinical efficacy, more studies are warranted to determine if this treatment regimen is more appropriate than newer therapies, such as alemtuzumab and other future immunomodulators. We know that sunlight helps human skin produce vitamin D, and researchers believe this vitamin helps modulate the immune system to reduce the risk of autoimmunity, including multiple sclerosis. .